Alcohol

 

 Holy Quran Says  in

 [The cow verse ] [219]

 They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: “In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit.” They ask thee how much they are to spend; say: “What is beyond your needs.” Thus doth Allah make clear to you His Signs: in order that ye may consider.

Introduction

Magnesium (Mg) is present in living cells and its plasma concentration is remarkably constant in healthy subjects. Plasma and intracellular Mg concentrations are tightly regulated by several factors. Among them, insulin seems to be one of the most important. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that insulin may modulate the shift of Mg from extra cellular to intracellular space. Intracellular Mg concentration has also been shown to be effective in modulating insulin action (mainly oxidative glucose metabolism), offset calcium-related excitation-contraction coupling, and decrease smooth cell responsiveness to depolarizing stimuli. Poor intracellular Mg concentrations, as found in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and in hypertensive patients, may result in a defective tyrosine-kinas activity at the insulin receptor level and exaggerated intracellular calcium concentration. Both events are responsible for the impairment in insulin action and a worsening of insulin resistance in none insulin-dependent diabetic and hypertensive patients. By contrast, in T2DM patients daily Mg administration, restoring a more appropriate intracellular Mg concentration, contributes to improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The benefits deriving- from daily Mg supplementation in T2DM patients are further supported by epidemiological studies showing that high daily Mg intake are predictive of a lower incidence of T2DM. Atients. By contrast, in T2DM patients daily Mg administration, restoring a more appropriate intracellular Mg concentration, contributes to improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The benefits deriving- from daily Mg supplementation in T2DM patients are further supported by epidemiological studies showing that high daily Mg intake are predictive of a lower incidence of T2DM

Ethanol

Persons with alcoholism represent the second largest group of people with hypomagnesaemia. This is due in part to the inherent effects of alcohol on magnesium homeostasis and in part to the consequences of the poor diet typical of alcohol abusers. Acutely, alcohol increases urinary magnesium excretion by as much as 260% above baseline values; this occurs within minutes of ingestion or parenteral administration. With chronic alcohol intake, body stores of magnesium become depleted. Reasons include inadequate intake, starvation ketosis, vomiting and diarrhea, and urinary excretion. In advanced alcoholism, however, urinary magnesium excretion may decline in response to reduced intake and depleted stores. Among the effects of chronic alcoholism are a negative magnesium balance, decreased plasma levels of magnesium, decreased magnesium concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and in muscle biopsies, and the development of a magnesium-responsive hypocalcaemia. The increased cancer risk associated with alcoholism may be partly explained by alcohol-induced magnesium deficiency. According to Richard Rivlin, MD, of New York’s Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that abnormalities in magnesium metabolism are associated with cancer development. Among them are the observations that magnesium inhibits carcinogenesis and may affect oncogene amplification, and that magnesium deficiency favors tumor formation by leading to impaired immune surveillance and enhanced susceptibility of cell membranes to oxi dant injury.

Alcohol Impairs Regulation of Blood Sugar Levels

The sugar glucose is the main energy source for all tissues. Glucose is derived from three sources: from food; from synthesis (manufacture) in the body; and from the breakdown of glycogen, a form of glucose that the body stores in the liver. Hormones help to maintain a constant concentration of glucose in the blood. This is especially important for the brain because it cannot make or store glucose but depends on glucose supplied by the blood. Even brief periods of low glucose levels (hypoglycemia) can cause brain damage. Two hormones that are secreted by the pancreas and that regulate blood glucose levels are insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers the glucose concentration in the blood; glucagon raises it. Because prevention of hypoglycemia is vital for the body, several hormones from the adrenal glands and pituitary back up glucagon function. Alcohol consumption interferes with all three glucose sources and with the actions of the regulatory hormones. Chronic heavy drinkers often have insufficient dietary intake of glucose (8). Without eating, glycogen stores are exhausted in a few hours (1). In addition, the body’s glucose production is inhibited while alcohol is being metabolized (2). The combination of these effects can cause severe hypoglycemia 6 to 36 hours after a binge- drinking episode (1). Even in well-nourished people, alcohol can disturb blood sugar levels. Acute alcohol consumption, especially in combination with sugar, augments insulin secretion and causes temporary hypoglycemia (9). In addition, studies in healthy subjects (10) and insulin-dependent diabetics (3) have shown that acute alcohol consumption can impair the hormonal response to hypoglycemia. Chronic heavy drinking, in contrast, has been associated with excessive blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Chronic alcohol abuse can reduce the body’s responsiveness to insulin and cause glucose intolerance in both healthy individuals (11) and alcoholics with liver cirrhosis (12). In fact, 45 to 70 percent of patients with alcoholic liver disease are glucose intolerant or are frankly diabetic (1). In animals, chronic alcohol administration also increases secretion of glucagon and other hormones that raise blood glucose levels Magnesium repletion by mouth is recommended for patients known to be heavy drinkers. It is also appropriate to give magnesium parent rally during alcohol withdrawal. Many of the manifestations of advanced or chronic alcoholism, such as personality changes, neuromuscular irritability, seizures, and delirium tremens, are probably aggravated by magnesium deficiency.